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Оливер Шимолӣ

Оливер Шимолӣ

МуқаддимаОливер Л. Ӯ маринадори ороишёфта, муаллифи серфурӯш, асосгузори тиҷорати хурд, ихтироъкор бо се патенти ИМА, сутуни синдикат ва барандаи "WarStories" дар канали Fox News мебошад. Вай даъвои муҳимтарин дастовардашро "шавҳари як ва падари чор фарзанд" медонад. Шимол инчунин муассис ва раиси ифтихории Freedom Alliance¹, як бунёди ғайритиҷоратӣ мебошад, ки барои фарзандони хизматчиёни дар амал кушташуда стипендия медиҳад. Шимол ба дифоъ аз сарбозони Амрико навиштан ва сухан гуфтанро идома медиҳад. Вай инчунин раис ва муассиси Guardian Technologies International, Inc., истеҳсолкунандаи зиреҳи бадан барои кормандони ҳифзи ҳуқуқ мебошад.Аввалин касб ва оилаНорт 7 октябри соли 1943 дар Сан Антониои Техас таваллуд шудааст ва дар католики католикии Рум дар болоии Филмонти Ню Йорк тарбия ёфтааст. Вай пеш аз дохил шудан ба Академияи баҳрии ИМА дар Донишгоҳи давлатии Ню -Йорк дар Брокпорт таҳсил кардааст, ки онро соли 1968 хатм кардааст. Шимол 22 сол ҳамчун пиёдаи баҳрӣ хизмат кардааст, аз ҷумла хизмат дар ҷанги Ветнам. Вай бо Ситораи нуқра, Ситораи биринҷӣ ва ду Дилҳои Арғувон мукофотонида шудааст. Ба кормандони Шӯрои Амнияти Миллӣ дар маъмурияти Рональд таъин карда шуд, полковник Шимол аз соли 1983 то 1986 ҳамоҳангсози зидди терроризми ҳукумати ИМА буд. Ӯ дар банақшагирии наҷоти 804 тиббӣ иштирок карда буд. донишҷӯён дар ҷазираи Гренада дар соли 1983 ва дар дастгиркунии далеронаи ғоратгарони киштии круизӣ нақши муҳим бозиданд Ахил Лаура соли 1985. ҳамла ба пойгоҳҳои террористии Муаммар Қаззофӣ дар Либия, Шимол ҳадафи куштори Абу Нидал (бо фармони Қаззофӣ) қарор гирифт, террористи номдор дар моҳи августи соли 2002 дар Бағдод мурда ёфт шуд. Интишори ахбори ҷангии барандаи ҷоизаи Шимол дар ҳоле ки ӯ " "бо ҷузъу томҳои баҳрӣ ва артиши ИМА барои Fox News ҳангоми амалиёти Озодии Ироқ дар соли 2003 ҷойгир карда шуда, кафкӯбиҳои зиёд ба даст овард. Оливер Норт аз соли 1967 бо собиқ Бетси Стюарт издивоҷ кардааст ва онҳо соҳиби чор фарзанд ҳастанд. Ҳаёти Шимол дар артиш ва сафари ӯ ба имон мавзӯъҳое мебошанд, ки ӯ дар бораи он сухан мегӯяд: Чӣ гуна бояд талаботҳои касбро бо ӯҳдадориҳои оилавӣ, эътиқод ва масъулиятҳои шаҳрвандӣ мувозинат дод.Мушкилоти Эрон-муқобилаШимол, вобаста ба нуқтаи назари сиёсии худ, ба шарофати иттиҳодияаш дар умури Эрон-Контр машҳур ё машҳур шуд. Вай ҳамоҳангсози марказии фурӯши ғайриқонунии силоҳ тавассути миёнаравҳо ба Эрон буд ва фоидаи он барои кумак ба гурӯҳи шӯришиёни Контра дар Никарагуа равона карда мешуд. Шимол навиштааст, ки мулоқот бо намояндаи қавии Панама Мануэль Нориега. "Шумо дар ёд доред, ки дар тӯли солҳо Мануэль Норьега дар Панама ва ман муносибати хеле хубе ба вуҷуд овардаем". мансабдорон метавонанд "барои тоза кардани симои ӯ кумак кунанд" ва манъи фурӯши силоҳ ба Қувваҳои Мудофиаи Панамаро бекор кунанд, Нориега раҳбарияти сандинистҳоро барои мо "ғамхорӣ хоҳад кард." Вай пешниҳод кард, ки Нориега 1 миллион доллар - аз сармояи "Лоиҳаи Демократия", ки аз фурӯши силоҳи ИМА ба Эрон ҷамъ оварда шудааст - барои кӯмаки раҳбари Панама дар вайрон кардани сармоягузории иқтисодии Никарагуа. Дар моҳи ноябри соли 1986, Шимол аз ҷониби президент Рейган барои ширкат дар ин кор аз кор ронда шуд. ва дар моҳи июли 1987, Шимол пеш аз шунидани телевизион дар кумитаи муштараки Конгресс, ки барои таҳқиқи Эрон-Контра ташкил карда шуд, даъват карда шуд. Вай аз амалҳои худ дифоъ карда, изҳор дошт, ки ба ҳадафи кумак ба Контрас, ки ӯро "муборизони озодӣ" меҳисобад, бовар дошт ва гуфт, ки нақшаи ғайриқонунии Эрон-Контаро "як идеяи тоза" меҳисобад. соли 1988 барои фаъолияташ ҳангоми Шӯрои Амнияти Миллӣ муҳокима карда шуд. Геселл дар 5 июли 1989, ба мӯҳлати сесолаи маҳрумият аз озодӣ, ду соли шартӣ, 150,000 доллар ҷарима ва 1200 соати хидмати ҷамъиятӣ. Бо вуҷуди ҳукми суди се судя ҳукми Шимол пас аз ду ҳафта бекор карда шуд. мурофиаи минбаъда дар асоси он, ки шаҳодати оммавии ӯ метавонад ҳуқуқи ӯро ба баррасии одилона зарар расонад. ИМА Суди Олӣ аз баррасии парванда худдорӣ кард ва судя Геселл 16 сентябри соли 1991, пас аз шунидани масъалаи дахлнопазирӣ, дар мавриди эҳсоси адвокати мустақил, айбҳоро бекор кард. Аслан, эътиқоди Шимол бекор карда шуд, зеро ба ӯ барои шаҳодати Конгресс дахлнопазирии маҳдуд дода шуда буд ва ин шаҳодат ба шоҳидони ҳокимият таъсир расонидааст.Ҳаёти минбаъда ва касби сиёсӣДар соли 1994, Шимол дар Вирҷиния ҳамчун номзади ҷумҳурихоҳон ба ИМА шикаст хӯрд Яке аз сабабҳои он метавонад дар он бошад, ки қабл аз интихобот хонуми пешини собиқ Нэнси Рейган ба матбуот хабар дод, ки Шимол дар баҳсҳо дар бораи Эрон-Контра ба шавҳараш дурӯғ гуфтааст. Номзадии Норт мавзӯи як филми мустанади "Номзади комил" дар соли 1996 буд. Шимол муаллифи якчанд китобҳои серфурӯш, аз ҷумла Дар зери оташ, Боз як миссия, Ҳикояҳои ҷанг - Амалиёти озодии Ироқ, Ҳадафи созмонёфта, ва Санксияи Ериҳо. Вай инчунин як сутуни синдикатӣ, барандаи намоиши телевизионии "Ҳикояҳои ҷанг бо Оливер Шимол" ва шарҳдиҳандаи зуд -зуд дар "Ҳанни ва Колмс" дар канали Fox News мебошад. Илова бар ин, ӯ дар доираи лексия банд аст.Мероси сиёсӣ ва таърихӣШимол як саҳнаи баҳсбарангез дар саҳнаи сиёсии Амрико буд ва тарафдоронаш дифои шадиди амалҳои ӯро қабул мекарданд ва мунаққидон аз вайрон кардани қонун норозӣ буданд. Сарфи назар аз таърихи Шимолӣ, вай аз баъзе муҳофизакорон дастгирӣ мегирад. Дигарон ақида доранд, ки ҳадафи Шимол барои шикаст додани тавсеаи коммунистӣ одилона буд ва тарзи ба даст овардани он аҳамият надорад. Мунаққидони Шимолӣ баҳс мекунанд, ки дар демократия ва миллати қонунҳо, як шахс наметавонад боло аз қонун амал кунад, новобаста аз он ки ӯ ҳадафҳои худро то чӣ андоза одилона меҳисобад. Баъзеҳо қайд мекунанд, ки фаъолияти ӯ ба кӯшиши сарнагун кардани як ҳукумати соҳибихтиёр, демократӣ интихобшуда ва инчунин терроризм дар Никарагуа мусоидат кардааст ва онҳо ба Эрон, як миллати душман ба Иёлоти Муттаҳида, кумак кардаанд. президент медонад ва инро кай медонист? Ба он ба ҷуз президент ва ёварони наздики ӯ касе посух дода наметавонист. Дар бораи интиқоли маблағ аз фурӯши аслиҳа, дар ҷараёни муҳокимаҳои Эрон-Контра дар 15 июли 1987, вай гуфт: "Ман як қарори хеле қасдан қабул кардам, ки аз президент нахоҳам пурсид, то ӯро аз ин қарор дур созам ва баъзе радкуниҳои ояндаро таъмин кунам. "Инкор кардани моҳиронаи Пойндекстер ҳам президентро аз таҳдиди импичмент озод кард ва ҳам Конгрессро аз вазифаи импичмент ба ӯ озод кард. "Бо иҷозати амалҳои шахсоне, ки ба маъмурият хидмат мекарданд, ҷинояткор дониста мешавад, худи маъмурият тавонист аз масъалаҳои воқеии алоқаманд даст кашад", навиштааст Шимол. "Ин дар Конгресс хуб буд ва тӯҳфа барои матбуот." Аз ин кор дарсҳои возеҳе бояд омӯхт. Маъмурияти Рейган дар ниҳоят дар ҷанги сард пирӯз шуд. Оё фиреб ва риёкорӣ бар мардуми Амрико такя карда буд, ки дар ниҳоят пирӯзии прагматизм бар қонун буд?


¹Саҳифаи интернетӣ барои Иттиҳоди Озодӣ
² Ҷон Пойндекстер мушовири амнияти миллӣ дар назди Роналд Рейган буд. Ӯро бо иттиҳом, дурӯғ гуфтан ба Конгресс, фиреб додани ҳукумат ва нобуд кардани далелҳо дар ҷанҷоли Эрон-Контра маҳкум карданд.


Эрон-Контр

Шимол дар давраи кораш ба ҳайси корманди Шӯрои Амнияти Миллӣ дар ҷараёни қазияи Эрон -Контра, ки фурӯши ғайриқонунии силоҳ ба Эронро барои ҳавасманд кардани раҳоии гаравгонгирони амрикоӣ дар Лубнон дар бар мегирифт, шӯҳрат пайдо кард. Шимол қисми дуюми нақшаро, ки бояд аз фурӯши аслиҳа ба дастгирии гурӯҳҳои исёнгарони Контра дар Никарагуа, ки тибқи қонунҳои федералӣ махсусан мамнӯъ карда шуда буд, ташкил ва созмон дод.

Дар бораи ин кор сухан гуфта, Шимол изҳори пушаймонӣ накард:

"Ман он идеяи истифодаи пули Оятуллоҳ Хумайниро барои дастгирии муборизони озодии Никарагуа ҳамчун як идеяи хуб дидам. Ҳоло ҳам дорам. Ба фикрам ин хато набуд. Фикр мекунам ин як идеяи тозаву озода буд ва ман барои қабул кардани масъулият будам барои он коре, ки ман кардам, зеро ман аз он чизе ки мо анҷом додем, ифтихор мекунам. "


Сандинистҳо дар Никарагуа

Чанде пас аз назорати Конгресс, демократҳо ислоҳи Боландро қабул карданд, ки фаъолияти Идораи марказии иктишоф (CIA) ва Департаменти мудофиа (DoD) -ро дар муноқишаҳои хориҷӣ маҳдуд кардааст.

Тағирот махсусан ба Никарагуа нигаронида шуда буд, ки дар он ҷо Контраси зидди коммунистӣ бо ҳукумати коммунистии Сандиниста мубориза мебурд.

Рейган Контрасро ҳамчун "эквиваленти маънавии падарони бунёдкор" тавсиф карда буд.

Бо вуҷуди ин, президент ба Мушовири амнияти миллии худ Роберт МакФарлейн дастур дод, ки новобаста аз хароҷоти сиёсӣ ё ба таври дигар ба Контраси маводи мухаддир кумак кунад.


Миллат Ҷазои Оливер Шимолӣ

ГЕРҲАРД А.ГЕЗЕЛ, додраси пешгӯинашавандаи 79-солаи округи федералӣ, ки мурофиаи Эронро бар зидди Оливер Л.Норт ба ӯҳда дошт, як ногаҳонии ниҳоиро наҷот дод ва оқои Шимолро барои ҷиноятҳояш бо ҳукми ҷарима дарбар гирифт. , хизмати ҷамъиятӣ ва озмоиш, аммо мӯҳлати зиндон нест.

Ҳаводорони ҷаноби Шимолӣ ва бадхоҳони ӯ, бо назардошти эҳтироми зиёд дар бораи судя Геселл, риояи қонун, ҷиддияти айбдоркуниҳо ва тавсияи прокурори мустақил Лоуренс Э. Уолш, муносибати хеле сахттарро интизор буданд. Шимол вақти дар зиндон хидмат карданро дорад. Илова бар ин, судя Геселл ҳангоми сарварии якчанд мурофиаҳои марбут ба Уотергейт дар нимаи солҳои 1970 ва 27-ум дар мавриди ба зиндон фиристодани мансабдорони баландпояи давлатӣ ҳеҷ гуна майл надошт.

Ҷаноби Норт, собиқ подполковники Корпуси баҳрӣ ва ёрдамчии Шӯрои Амнияти Миллӣ, дар вайрон кардани ҳуҷҷатҳо, қабули тӯҳфаи як системаи амнияти хонагӣ ба маблағи 13800 доллар ва монеъ шудан ба монеаи Конгресс маҳкум шуда буд. Судя Геселл метавонист ҳадди аксар ҷазоро ба 10 соли зиндон ва 750 ҳазор доллар ҷарима таъин кунад. Ба ҷои ин, ӯ $ 150,000 ҷарима, ду соли шартӣ, ҳукми шартии сесола ва иҷрои иҷрои 1200 соати хидмати ҷамъиятиро таъин кард.

Сабук будани ҳукм додситонҳоро водор кард, ки аз бинои додгоҳ бидуни шарҳ хабар гиранд. Ва танқидҳои пароканда аз демократҳои либералӣ вуҷуд доштанд, ба монанди Намояндаи Ҳовард М.Метзенбаум аз Огайо, ки гуфт, ин ҳукм ногаҳонии ноумедкунанда буд. , яке аз мунаққидони шадидтар аз ҷаноби Шимолӣ ва#x27, чизе барои танқид дар бораи ҷазо наёфт. Ҷаноби Ҳамилтон, раиси ҳайати намояндагон, ки Эрон-contra-ро таҳқиқ мекард, гуфт, ки ҳукм "хуб ва оқилона" буд. ' '

Ҳамзамон, сабукии судя Геселл ба назар чунин менамуд, ки маъракаи ҷонибдорони муҳофизакор ҷаноби Шимол ва#27 барои афви президент бекор карда шудааст. Ҳамин тариқ, ҷаноби Буш, ки изҳори хушнудӣ кард, ки ҷаноби Шимол ҳеҷ гуна зиндон нагирифтааст, мумкин аст аз қарори сиёсие ҷилавгирӣ шавад.

Оқибатҳои мурофиаҳои боқимондаи Эрон баръакс номуайян буданд. Судя Геселл гуфт, ки шахсони олӣ дар Маъмурияти Рейган барои ҷиноятҳои зидди Эрон нисбат ба ҷаноби Шимол масъулияти бештар доранд. Оё ин маънои онро дошт, ки айбдоршавандагони оянда метавонистанд нисбат ба ҷаноби Шимол гирифтани муомилаи сахттарро интизор шаванд, агар гунаҳкор донанд?

Ҳатман не. Баъзе мансабдорони давлатӣ гуфтанд, ки ҳукми сабук зоҳиран мавқеи чаҳор муттаҳами боқимонда, аз ҷумла мушовири собиқи амнияти миллӣ Ҷон М. Ин айбдоршавандагонро ташвиқ кардан мумкин аст, ки бо таъқиби ҷиддӣ эътироз кунанд ва бовар доранд, ки ҳатто агар онҳо гунаҳгор дониста шаванд ҳам, метавонанд аз мӯҳлати ҳабс фирор кунанд.


Оё NRA воқеан таърихи Оливер Шимолро медонад?

Гейдж Скидмор/flickr

Ман ҳеҷ гоҳ аз Дэвид Корн напурсидам, ки чаро, вақте ки ӯ муҳаррири Вашингтон буд Миллат, ӯ тасмим гирифт, ки як қисми назарраси умри худро дар таҳқиқи касби корманди CIA Тед Шакли сарф кунад, аммо ман фикр мекунам, ки ин як амри боэътимод аст, ки ӯ наметавонад ба як ҳикояе муқобилат кунад, ки халиҷи хукҳоро бо дуздии Уотергейт ва кори Эрон-Контра пайваст кунад. Барои ҳамаи аъзоёни Ассотсиатсияи миллии тирандозӣ рафтан як нусхаи Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley ва CIA & rsquos Crusades (дар муқоваи сахт дар Амазонка бо нархи $ 3.99 дастрас аст) рафтан хуб мебуд. Эҳтимол ин роҳи осонтарини шиносоии онҳо бо президенти нави худ Олли Шимол барои маблағгузории Contras буд.

Дар мавриди қисмати ҷанҷол дар Эрон, ман & rsquod тавсия медиҳам, ки боби 8: Корхона ва молияи он аз мушовири мустақил Лоуренс Э. Уолш & rsquos Гузориши ниҳоии Эрон/Масъалаҳои Контр. Ин як афсонаи ҷолибест, ки бархе аз ашхоси машҳурро дар бар мегирад, то тавассути рагҳои сиёсати миллии мо дар нимаи дуюми асри 20 гузаранд. Шумо хондан дар бораи кормандони CIA Рафаэл & ldquoChi Chi & rdquo Quintero, Томас Клинз ва Эдвин Уилсон, ба ман бовар кунед. Донистани тарзи ҳаёти тоҷирони аслиҳа ба мисли Аднан Хошуқҷӣ ҳамеша шавқовар аст.

Ин ҳама муҳим аст, зеро хислати аслии Оливер Шимол ҳатто дар маркази диққати миллат буданаш пурра фаҳмида нашудааст ва гузашти вақт дар ин бобат кумак накардааст. Қисми мушкилот дар он буд, ки Мушовири мустақил маҷбур буд аксари айбҳои воқеан ҷиддии зидди Шимолро рад кунад, зеро исботи гуноҳи ӯ маълумоти махфиро ифшо мекард ва аз ҷониби Конгресс ба ӯ дахлнопазирии маҳдуд дода шуда буд ва азбаски адвокатҳои ӯ хеле салоҳиятнок ва хашмгин буданд. барои дифоъ аз греймайл истифода барад.

Ҳамдардӣ ба Шимол ҳамеша нисбатан осон буд, агар шумо дар бораи амалиёти ғайриқонунии ӯ ташкилкардаатон хеле амалӣ набудед. Аз ӯ хоҳиш карда шуд, ки Контрасро дар як вақт нигоҳ дорад, вақте ки Конгресс ягон кӯмаки мустақимро ба кори онҳо манъ карда буд. Президент гуфт, ки ин муҳим аст ва котиби дифои ӯ, директори CIA ва мушовири амнияти миллӣ ҳама розигии худро медиҳанд. Баъдтар, аз Шимол хоҳиш карда шуд, ки дар пирӯзии гаравгонҳое, ки шахсони боэътимоди Эрон дар Лубнон нигоҳ медоштанд, кумак кунанд. Ин барои Роналд Рейган афзалияти аввалиндараҷа буд. Ин & rsquos ҳақиқӣ Шимолӣ метавонист ба ҷои кори ғайриқонунӣ истеъфо диҳад, аммо фаҳмидани он ки чаро ӯ ҳис мекард, ки ӯ коре мекунад, ки ваколатдор ва ватандӯстона бошад.

Агар ҳама коре, ки Шимол мекард, дастурҳои ба ӯ додашударо иҷро мекард, вай бешубҳа метавонист марди тирамоҳ ҳисобида шавад. Роҳбарони ӯ бояд пеш аз ӯ дар дафтар мебуданд ва президент дар ниҳоят масъултарин ҳизб буд. Ҳатто баъзе дурӯғҳои ӯ фаҳмо буданд, зеро роҳбарони ӯ дурӯғ гуфтаанд ва аз ӯ хоҳиш кардаанд, ки дар бораи масъалаҳое, ки ба муносибатҳои хориҷӣ халал мерасонанд ва манбаъҳо ва усулҳоро созиш кунанд, дурӯғ гӯяд.

Мушкилоти ин ривоят дар он аст, ки Шимолӣ танҳо дастурҳоро иҷро накардааст. Вай ва лейтенантҳояш Ричард Секорд ва Алберт Ҳаким нақшаи мукаммале тартиб доданд, то аз ҳисоби Контрас ва ҳукумати Амрико бой шаванд. Онҳо ин корро бо даст кашидан аз аҳдҳое, ки бо эрониҳо, исроилиён, контрасҳо ва ҳукумат баста буданд, анҷом доданд. Ин аз гузориши Уолш аст:

Секорд ва Ҳаким дар натиҷаи иштироки онҳо дар Эрон ва амалиёти зиддитеррористӣ манфиати зиёд ба даст оварданд. Secord дар солҳои 1985 ва 1986 аз корхона 2 миллион доллар фоидаи мустақими шахсӣ ва беш аз 1 миллион доллар дар шакли пули нақд гирифт. Ҳаким дар солҳои 1985 ва 1986 2,06 миллион доллар имтиёзҳои мустақим ва беш аз 550 ҳазор доллар пули нақд гирифт.

Имтиёзҳо ба се категорияи васеъ тақсим карда шуданд: тақсимоти фоидаи бадастомада аз фурӯши яроқ, ки барои он ҳар яке аз ҳисобҳои Enterprise, ки ба корхонаҳои тиҷоратии Secord-Hakim ворид шудаанд, ба маблағи 520,000 доллари амрикоӣ 1,557,377 доллар ва маблағҳои аз ҳисоби корхонаҳо барои истифодаи шахсӣ гирифташуда, аз ҷумла таъмири як ҳавопаймои Secord ба маблағи 5229 доллар, пардохтҳои ҳар кадоме аз ҷониби Secord ва Ҳаким барои як ширкати тиҷоратӣ дар Ховари Миёна 20 000 доллар ва барои сармоягузорӣ ба як корхонаи тиҷории лӯхтак.

Шимол ҳама фаъолиятҳои Secord ва Hakim & rsquos -ро назорат мекард ва ӯ завқи худро ба даст овард:

Шимол шаҳодат дод, ки 4300 доллар чекҳои сайёҳӣ ва rsquos, ки Калеро ба ӯ барои фонди амалиётӣ додааст ва онро Шимол дар мағозаҳои хӯрокворӣ, нуқтаҳои фурӯши сӯзишворӣ ва дигар нуқтаҳои савдо сарф кардааст, бояд хароҷоти амалиётеро, ки аз ҷайби худ пардохт кардааст, ҷуброн кунад. Вай гуфт, ки вай аз нобуд сохтани ягона сабти нигоҳдории маблағҳои фонди амалиётӣ асабӣ нест, зеро ӯ ҳеҷ гоҳ бовар надошт, ки ӯро ҳеҷ гоҳ ба кори беинсофона бо пул муттаҳам нахоҳанд кард.

Шимол шаҳодат дод, ки ӯ дар қуттии металлӣ ба фарши ҷевони хонааш 15,000 доллар пули нақд дошт, ки аз тағйири кисса ва ҳисоббаробаркунии суғуртаи даҳсолаҳо наҷот ёфтааст. Ин, гуфт Шимол, манбаи маблағ барои мошине, ки моҳи октябри соли 1985 харида буд. Шимол наметавонист шарҳ диҳад, ки чаро ӯ мошинро бо ду пули нақд пардохт кардааст ва mdash дуюм пас аз боздид аз Шимол ба Secord. Вай гуфт, ки пардохти октябри соли 1985 -ро ба ёд оварда наметавонад.

Шимол дар бораи ҳисоби сармоягузории $ 200,000, ки шарики тиҷоратии Secord & rsquos Алберт Ҳаким барои шимол дар Швейтсария таъсис додааст, изҳор накардааст, гарчанде ки ӯ иқрор шуд, ки ӯ зани худ Бетсиро ба Филаделфия фиристодааст, то моҳи марти 1986 барои мулоқот бо Уиллард И.Зукер, Secord-Hakim Enterprise & rsquos менеҷери молиявӣ. Шимол гуфт, ки вай бовар дорад, ки ҳадафи сафари Бетси Норт ва Филаделфия ин буд, ки вай худро бо Зукер муаррифӣ кунад, агар Шимол аз сафари хатарнок ба Эрон барнагардад. Шимол гуфт, ки ӯ тахмин кардааст, ки дар сурати марги ӯ коре анҷом дода мешавад ва ин дуруст ва бошарафона буд ва ҳеҷ чизи баде набуд, & rdquo рад мекунад, ки ҳисоби сармоягузорӣ кӯшиши ришвахории Ҳаким аст.

[Ҳаким дар моҳи ноябри соли 1989 дар кӯшиши илова кардани маоши Шимол гунаҳкор дониста шуд, ки қисман ба таъсиси суратҳисоби сармоягузории $ 200,000 асос ёфтааст. Ба боби Ҳаким нигаред.]

Шимол натавонист дигаронро барои қабули системаи амнияти хона аз Secord айбдор кунад, ба истиснои шарҳ додани он, ки ӯ ин системаро дар посух ба таҳдидҳои террористӣ ба ҳаёти худ қабул кардааст. Шимол иқрор шуд, ки пас аз эълони кори Эрон/мухолифат, ӯ бо Гленн Робинетт, афсари собиқи CIA, ки барои насб кардани система дар Secord кор мекард, табодули номаҳои бардурӯғро пешниҳод кард, ки тартиби пардохтро пешниҳод мекунад. & ldquo [I] t кори хеле беақлона буд, & rdquo Шимолӣ гуфт.

Қисми зиёди пуле, ки Секорд ва Ҳаким ба даст овардаанд, аз ҳисоби пур кардани ҳукумати ИМА ё барои напардохтани дурусти онҳо буд. Ба ин тариқ, ин намуди фаъолият дар тарҳрезии амалиёт сохта шудааст. Бо пардохти барзиёди эрониён ва исроилиён онҳо тавонистанд маблағеро барои интиқол ба Контрас ба даст оранд. Аммо онҳо инчунин Контрас ва инчунин ҳукумати ИМА -ро барзиёд пардохт карданд ва онҳо пулро барои худ нигоҳ доштанд.

Мушкилоти асосӣ бо Олли Норт набуд, ки ӯ амалиёти ғайриқонуниро, ки аз ҷониби президент ва тамоми дастаи амнияти миллии ӯ ваколатдор буд, роҳандозӣ кардааст. Мушкилот ҳатто дар он набуд, ки иштибоҳҳои ӯ боиси ифшои амалиёти Контра ва созиши аслиҳаи гаравгонгирони Эрон бидуни таъмини раҳоии ягон гаравгон шуданд. Мушкил дар он набуд, ки ӯ ҳуҷҷатҳоро пора карда, худашро маҷруҳ кардааст. Масъала дар он буд, ки ӯ аз мавқеи худ барои дуздӣ истифода кардааст. Ва бешубҳа ба ӯ касе иҷозат надод, ки дуздӣ кунад.

Дар бозгашт, ҳеҷ кас баҳс намекунад, ки ба Олли Шимол супурдани ин амалҳо қарори оқилона буд. Ва сабаби асосии хатогӣ дар он буд, ки Шимол ҳамон шахсонеро истифода бурд, ки амалиёти халиҷи хукҳоро пеш бурдаанд, ҳамон одамоне, ки дуздии Уотергейтро дуздидаанд ва ҳамон одамоне, ки эътимоде, ки дар Лаос дар замони Ветнам ба онҳо дода шудааст, истифода кардаанд. Ҷанг барои ворид кардани героини Осиёи Ҷанубу Шарқӣ ба бозори ҷаҳонӣ. Ахлоқ нуқтаи қавии ин экипаж набуд ва сабти нотавонӣ ва ифшои онҳо бояд афсонавӣ бошад ва дар ҳар як мактаби амалиёти махфӣ таълим дода шавад.

Ман итминони комил дорам, ки одамоне, ки тасмим гирифтанд Оливер Шимолро президенти Ассотсиатсияи миллии тирандозӣ кунанд, бо дуздии Шимол ва rsquos шинос нестанд ва бештар ба афсонаи мифологии Шимол бахшида шудаанд, на ба марди воқеӣ. Онҳо шояд беҳтараш сабти воқеии иҷрои ӯро баррасӣ мекарданд. Вақте ки сандинистҳо яке аз ҳавопаймоҳои нақлиётии Шимол ва rsquosро сарнагун карданд ва Евгений Ҳасенфус, пилоти собиқадори Тед Шакли ва рӯзҳои қочоқи героини Лаосро забт карданд, лӯлаи ӯ ба Контрас фош шуд. Гуфта мешавад, ки созишномаҳои махфӣ бо эрониҳо бо ҷанҷоли Эрон-Контра ва бо ҳама мушкилоти ҳуқуқие, ки дар он иштирок карда буданд, инчунин эҷоди як даҳшати сиёсӣ барои президент Роналд Рейган ва вориси ӯ Ҷорҷ Ҳ.В. Буш.

Шимол дар бораи аслиҳа бисёр чизҳоро медонад. Ӯ медонад, ки чӣ гуна онҳоро аз тоҷирони байналмилалии аслиҳа ва ҳукуматҳои хориҷӣ эмин нигоҳ дорад. Ӯ медонад, ки чӣ тавр онҳоро аз як ҷой ба ҷои дигар интиқол диҳад. Вай медонад, ки барои таъсиси ширкатҳои ниҳонӣ ва харидани интиқол ва нақлиёти ҳавоӣ киро киро кунад. Вай медонад, ки чӣ гуна ҳар як муомилотро аз даст диҳад.

Он чизе ки ӯ намедонад ва чӣ гуна аз он халос шудан мумкин аст. Он чизе ки ӯ намедонад, ин аст, ки чӣ гуна ба ҳадафҳои ба ӯ додашуда ноил шудан мумкин аст. Озодии гаравгонҳо ва rsquo таъмин карда нашудааст. Амалиётҳо махфӣ намонд. Ҳама иштироккунандагон, аз ҷумла роҳбарони ӯ, нақшҳояшонро фош карданд ва/ё сарпӯшашонро тарконданд.

Муҳимтар аз ҳама барои NRA, Шимол эътиқоди ба ӯ бовар кардашударо барои дуздӣ истифода бурд ва ба ин васила ҳатто ба худи Сент Ронни Рейган хиёнат кард.

Аъзоёни NRA бояд ин таърихро донанд, зеро дар ҳоле ки ба онҳо ин писанд аст, вақте ки Шимол мегӯяд, ки мо бояд аз панҷ детекторҳои металлӣ гузарем, то ба мактаб ва rsquos бачагони мо дохил шавем, онҳо онро писандиданд, вақте ки Шимол табиати ӯро пайравӣ мекунад ва роҳи беихтиёрона роҳ ёфтанро мефаҳмад ҷомашӯии ифлоси онҳоро ҳангоми қаллобӣ аз пулашон фош кунед.

Ва бо далелҳои бештар ва бештаре, ки нишон медиҳанд, ки NRA аллакай дар рафтори ҷинояткоронаи худ бо истифода аз пули хориҷӣ барои ғайриқонунӣ маблағгузории маъракаҳои сиёсии дохилӣ ба дӯши худ афтодааст, ҳоло воқеан вақти он аст, ки шахсеро мисли Шимол бо робитаҳои даҳсолаҳои худ ба як бадбахтӣ пас аз дигаре?


Таърихи махфии яҳудиёни Оливер Шимол

Ҳангоми интихоби Оливер Шимолӣ ба раҳбарии лобби тавонои тирандозӣ, Ассотсиатсияи Миллии Тирандозҳо (NRA) на танҳо фармоишгари парвандаи Эрон-Контр ва ҷинояткори маҳкумшудаест, ки ба Конгресс дурӯғ гуфтааст. They’re also getting a rabidly pro-Israel Christian evangelist who for decades has been outing what he claims are anti-Semites in the U.S. government and chiding Palestinian leaders for not renouncing terrorism.

Just this past January, North led a 10-day trip to Israel for Freedom Alliance’s Holy Land Tour and Security Conference. “Together, we will visit Nazareth, the Jordan River, and the City of David we’ll dine on the Sea of Galilee and travel to places that make the words of the Old & New Testaments come alive,” wrote North in a letter to potential participants, posted on the website of Inspiration Cruises & Tours, which describes itself as a “Christian-owned and led company [that] turn[s] vacations into life-changing encounters in the best places on earth…. your opportunity to get away with God. … The privilege of serving the body of Christ and expanding His Kingdom on earth is what drives us to achieve ever-increasing levels of excellence.” The tour, North continued, would “explore the special relationship between the United States and Israel with informative seminars led by Israeli military, political and business leaders.” A “special relationship” in which North at one time was a key player. But I get ahead of myself.

North’s love affair with Israel is nothing new. At a 1989 Roundtable Prayer Breakfast for Israel at the National Religious Broadcasters convention sponsored by three Christian groups — the Religious Roundtable, the Brotherhood Forest of Israel, and Intercessors for America — North called on the Palestine Liberation Organization to condemn the murder of Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich, the Ma’alot massacre of schoolchildren, and the murder of Leon Klinghoffer on the Achille Lauro cruise ship. According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, North also recalled the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht, calling it “the day in which Adolf Hitler turned loose his jack-booted thugs to start one of the most murderous atrocities known to man.”

In his 1991 book “Under Fire,” North wrote that the U.S. government contained an “ingrained streak of anti-Semitism” and that the State Department exhibited a “long-standing and barely hidden pro-Arab tilt.” He also took on former Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger, writing that he “seemed to go out of his way to oppose Israel on any issue and to blame the Israelis for every problem in the Middle East,” attributing Weinberger’s antipathy toward the Jewish state to the latter’s “sensitivity about his own Jewish ancestry.”

But North of course is and always will be best known for his somewhat bizarre wheeling and dealing whereby this military assistant at the National Security Council oversaw arms sales to Ayatollah Khomeini-era Iran — he of “America is the Great Satan” — and used the profits to fund the anti-Sandinista campaign in Nicaragua by the Contras, in defiance of a Congressional ban on such assistance. In subsequent testimony before Congress, North himself termed the deal “a neat idea.”

In fact, the Iran-Contra deal was an outgrowth of secret arms sales of American weapons to Iran by Israel. Iran sought the weapons for its burgeoning struggle against Iraq, and in 1985 Iranian arms merchant Manucher Ghorbanifar and National Security Council consultant Michael Ledeen — the latter working for National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane — came a-calling in Washington. President Reagan himself approved the sales, funneled through Israel — which itself viewed this deal-with-the-presumptive-devil in the same “Godfather”-like terms held by the U.S., in which the enemy of my enemy is my friend — over the objections of Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger and Secretary of State George Shultz. Saudi billionaire oil and arms trader Adnan Khashoggi also played a role in financing the effort. All of those involved became household names when the deal became public knowledge (via a report in a Lebanese newspaper) and an investigation was launched by a Joint House-Senate Committee, whose televised hearings were the biggest show out of Washington since Watergate a decade or so earlier. (Some termed the affair “Irangate.”)

There are those, however, who view North as having betrayed Israel with his plan to use the profits to fund the Contras. In order to do so, North removed Israel as the middleman in selling arms to Iran. Israel paid North back by cooperating with the congressional investigation, which resulted in the indictment of 14 administration officials (including Weinberger) and conviction of 11, including North. Of these, all either had their convictions reversed on appeal (mostly due to technicalities) or were pardoned by George H.W. Bush in the waning days of his presidency.

Some also see more than a modicum of irony in having North take the helm of an organization that pledges fealty to the U.S. Constitution, albeit mostly focused on one particular amendment to the founding organizational document of the United States.

“For an organization so concerned with law and order, picking a new leader who admitted that he lied to Congress is a truly remarkable decision,” said Avery Gardiner, co-president of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. The gun lobby, continued Gardiner, “will be led by a man whose own concealed carry permit was revoked because he was ‘not of good character.’”


Oliver North - History

Furthering the Version

Reagan-myth worshipers would prefer to erase from the national conscious and conscience the embarrassing events of the final years of his second term, especially the entire Iran-Contra affair. It was, for a lot of people, yet another case of a Republican administration getting caught up in another humiliating scandal. In many ways, the Iran-Contra affair went far beyond anything seen in the Watergate hearings.

The threat of another Cuba had preoccupied the Reagan administration and, with the openly declared mission of the Nicaraguan Marxist regime to spread revolution throughout the region, the policy had been to arm and train right wing insurgent militias called the Contras.

However, direct funding of this insurgency was made illegal through the Boland Amendment -the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the Contras militants.

In order to circumvent these laws, senior officials of the Reagan administration decided to continue arming and training the Contras secretly and in violation of the law as enacted in the Boland Amendment. Senior Reagan administration officials started what they came to call "the Enterprise."

Additionally, in order to raise funds- obviously everything had to be “off the books”- another scheme was devised to finance their illegal funding of the Contras insurgency. At that time, Saddam Hussein of Iraq, one of our allies, had launched into a bloody war against Iran. Arm sales to Iran, a violation of the official US policy of an arms embargo, were established, initially through third parties and then directly, and the profits were funneled into funding for the Contras. (That is the shortest possible version.)

Eventually, as could have been expected, the whole thing, blew up in everybody’s faces. The Democratic-controlled Congress was enraged by the administration’s lies and conducted a bi-partisan investigation.

People forget and people forgive, but mostly they forget. However, I do recall North's six-day appearance before the a special joint House and Senate investigating committee investigating Iran-Contra events. He was for a lot of viewers one of the stars in what seemed to be a tiresome redux of Watergate. All summer long the hearings appeared on daytime television, like a third rate sumer stock production of an obscure historical tragedy.

Political bias along party lines was painfully clear. One one side, a group of white haired pale faced men made long monotone speeches that somehow became questions at the last moment. On the other side, another pale face, accompanied by a whispering lawyer, would usually answer, “I can’t recall that, Senator.” All the events seemed practiced and self-serving. Nobody seemed very interested in either asking the right questions or giving the honest answers. A sad spectacle, in every sense of the word.

Then along came Oliver North, the dashing ex-Marine, in full military regalia, a stamp collection of medals over his heart. Handsome and well-spoken, he oozed charisma and patriotism. This was a hero, people remarked at the time. When he spoke, it was difficult not to be moved. Unlike so many of those that testified before him, North appeared committed to his mission and stood proudly to defend his noble ideals. Based only on appearance, North was a hero in the Iran-Contra scandal. Yet, as details emerged from a closer committee examination, things were not nearly as black and white as they initially appeared.

Lt. Colonel North freely admitted that he had shredded documents, lied to Congress and falsified official records. Such seeming forthrightness was courageous and admirable. In a weird mix of political spin and legalese, North told the committee, "I was provided with additional input that was radically different from the truth. I assisted in furthering that version."

The final opinion of the committee was not at all favorable to President Reagan. With the sharp criticism of the president, the report concluded that a “cabal of zealots” in the administration had managed to take control of key aspects of foreign policy. Among the targets of the criticism were Lt. Col. Oliver L. North, the former National Security Council aide Rear Adm. John M. Poindexter, the president’s former national security adviser William J. Casey, the former director of central intelligence and Attorney General Edwin Meese III.

Despite strong condemnation in the final report on the Iran-Contra Scandal. for a number of House Republicans, North was, and is still today, unquestionably a hero. Sean Wilentz points out in a New York Times' op-ed piece: .

At the conclusion of the hearings, a dissenting minority report codified these views. The report’s chief author was a former resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, Michael J. Malbin, who was chosen by Mr. Cheney as a member of the committee’s minority staff. Another member of the minority’s legal staff, David S. Addington, was later the vice president’s chief of staff.

The minority report stressed the charge that the inquiry was a sham, calling the majority report’s allegations of serious White House abuses of power “hysterical.” The minority admitted that mistakes were made in the Iran-contra affair but laid the blame for them chiefly on a Congress that failed to give consistent aid to the Nicaraguan contras and then overstepped its bounds by trying to restrain the White House.

The Reagan administration, according to the report, had erred by failing to offer a stronger, principled defense of what Mr. Cheney and others considered its full constitutional powers. Not only did the report defend lawbreaking by White House officials it condemned Congress for having passed the laws in the first place.

Like so much of the Neo-conservative rhetoric, tin the dissenting report was much picking and choosing of statements made by founding fathers to give weight to their argument. For example, a bit of the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton’s remarks endorsing “energy in the executive” gave an aura of approval. If anything, according to the dissenting minority report, the powers of president should be less restrained and limited by the legal restrictions imposed by Congress. As Wilentz notes:.

Hamilton certainly desired a strong executive, but warned that it would be “utterly unsafe and improper” to give a president complete control over foreign policy.

In truth, as Mr. Cheney has also remarked, the struggle for him began much earlier, during the Nixon administration. A business partner says that Mr. Cheney told him that Watergate was merely “a political ploy by the president’s enemies.” For Mr. Cheney, the scandal was not Richard Nixon’s design for an imperial presidency but the Democrats’ drive for an imperial Congress.

Still, Mr. Cheney’s quest to accumulate unaccountable executive power — a quest that has received much attention of late — took a major turn 20 years ago. And part of Iran-contra’s legacy has now become a legacy of the Bush-Cheney administration.

The Federalist Papers , incidentally, have a great deal of interesting things to say about the potential for governmental abuse of power, such as, “If Tyranny and Oppression come to this land, it will be in the guise of fighting a foreign enemy.” Those are, of course, excerpts that Dick Cheney would have skimmed.

Madison also warned against another kind of threat to the republic which would relate to North’s later career. In Federalist No. 10, for example, in answer to Hamilton, Madison warned against the the destructive role of faction in breaking apart the republic. He defines a faction as "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a minority or majority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community." He identifies the most serious source of faction to be the diversity of opinion in political life which leads to dispute over fundamental issues such as what regime or religion should be preferred.

Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may, by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the suffrages, and then betray the interests, of the people.

James Madison, November 22, 1787

In any case, in the minority report, we can see, perhaps, an unheeded warning for the future. For in different Republican administration, it was precisely this disdain of oversight and contempt for Congress- and the Constitution- that was to led to the abuse of the Bush II administration, with Cheney presiding.

Bungled Justice

Mr. North was eventually convicted of three federal felonies — receiving an illegal payment, obstruction of a Congressional inquiry and destroying official documents, although an appellate court held that his testimony delivered under Congressional immunity may have affected jurors and reversed one conviction.

In fact, North served no jail time whatsoever which left both his admirers and his detractor scratching her heads in disbelief.

According to a New York times article Mr. North, the former Marine Corps lieutenant colonel and National Security Council aide, was convicted of destroying documents, accepting the gift of a $13,800 home security system and abetting the obstruction of Congress. [Federal District] Judge Gesell could have imposed a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison and fines of $750,000. Instead, he imposed a $150,000 fine, two years of probation, a three-year suspended sentence and an order to perform 1,200 hours of community service.

The decision was, no doubt, a sound political move. A campaign had been underway for a presidential pardon which would have put then president George Bush, Sr. in a particularly difficult situation. George Bush I, vice president for Reagan, along with others in the Reagan cabinet, had been the prime backers in the arms for hostages plan. No doubt Bush was delighted and relieved. Yet this decision was proof enough for most people that justice, according to the Far Right, was only an admirable but flexible ideal.

In fact, president George Bush, Sr., formerly vice- president during the operation, would later go on to pardon Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger. along with five other Iran/contra defendants.

The Weinberger pardon marked the first time a President ever pardoned someone in whose trial he might have been called as a witness, because the President was knowledgeable of factual events underlying the case. Apparently the prevailing notion was: some things are just too important to leave for justice to decide .

With each Republican cycle, the scope of the abuse of power seems to grow larger and affect more innocent lives. If Watergate was a sordid tale of a bungled burglary, Iran-Contra was a pathetic account of a bungled covert operation, and so many of the same players returned for the next act, in a deadly serious performance of a bungled war. Isn't it only fair to ask what the next bit of theater will be? A bungled overthrow of the government? A bungled Armageddon?

"Right-wing extremism in the United States can be broadly divided into those groups, movements, and adherents that are primarily hate-oriented (based on hatred of particular religious, racial or ethnic groups), and those that are mainly anti-government, rejecting federal authority in favor of state or local authority, or rejecting government authority entirely. It may include groups and individuals that are dedicated to a single issue, such as opposition to abortion or immigration."

Proposed imposition of firearms restrictions and weapons bans likely would attract new members into the ranks of right-wing extremist groups, as well as potentially spur some of them to begin planning and training for violence against the government. The high volume of purchases and stockpiling of weapons and ammunition by right-wing extremists in anticipation of restrictions and bans in some parts of the country continue to be a primary concern to law enforcement.

Returning veterans possess combat skills and experience that are attractive to right-wing extremists. DHS/ I & A is concerned that righ-twing extremists will attempt to recruit and radicalize returning veterans in order to boost their violent capabilities.

Race was also mentioned in the report.

He concludes with this rather cheap shot:

In his own mind and the collective mind of Fox news, Oliver North has been defamed and victimized and long misunderstood. He has said, "I'm like John Wayne. I only play good guys." (The operative word, one might assume, is "play.")

On a radio talk show with Randi Rhodes , North himself appeared to have swallowed his own revisionist history of the Iran-Contra events when he claimed "No-one even charged me of lying to Congress" Rhodes immediately pointed out that according to the Report of the Independent Counsel:


"Count One: The indictment charged that North and McFarlane obstructed Congress by falsely denying in three letters North's contra- assistance efforts.

"Counts Two, Three, and Four: False statements to Congress, charging specific misrepresentations in the three letters described in Count One."

Later he would tell listeners that "Lawrence Walsh had every record from my office, he had absolutely everything." Again the report by Independent Counsel prove the contrary.

Perhaps most outrageously, North refutes all the allegations against him despite the record.

Oliver North: "No-one ever convicted of me of lying to Congress" Randi Rhodes: "You were convicted in a court of law"

Oliver North: "I am denying it"

Report of the Independent Counsel:

"On May 4, 1989, he was found guilty of three counts, including aiding and abetting obstruction of Congress, shredding and altering official documents, and accepting an illegal gratuity from Secord."

Such confabulations shouldn't surprise anybody when the interview begins with a statement from North as, "Randi, Randi, one of the reasons why liberals don’t make it in radio is they can’t tell the truth. First of all. "

Forever Denied


According to the San Jose Mercury News Gary Webb’s expose and subsequent book Dark Alliance: the CIA, the contras, and the crack cocaine explosion cites the Kerry report on the connections between terrorism and drugs the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of drugs into the U.S. by Contra personnel. Webb charged that the Reagan administration shielded inner-city drug dealers from prosecution in order to raise money for the Contras, especially after Congress passed the Boland Amendment , which prohibited direct Contra funding.

In 1987, the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations began an investigation focusing on allegations received by the subcommittee chairman, Senator John Kerry, concerning illegal gun-running and narcotics trafficking associated with the Contras. A two-year investigation produced a 1,166-page report in 1989 analyzing the involvement of Contra groups and supporters in drug trafficking, and the role of United States government officials in these activities. Allegations of cocaine trafficking by Contras also arose during the investigation conducted by Independent Counsel Lawrence Walsh into the Iran-Contra affair. Drug trafficking allegations, however, were not the focus of that inquiry and the Walsh report included no findings on these allegations.

The Kerry Report was, in fact, a well-researched and scathing document which established a clear relationship between high level officials in government and drug cartels. Among the allegations, here are a few as stated in the introduction of the report which seem particularly relevant.

We learned how high United States officials, including Lt. Col. Oliver North, went to the Justice Department to intercede on behalf of a man convicted of a narco-terrorist assassination plot against a Honduran President--because the man had been the administration's liaison to the Contras.

We also found out that the State Department chose four companies controlled by drug traffickers to provide assistance to the Contras. As a result, drug traffickers got funds out of the United States public treasury as part of our Contra humanitarian assistance program.

We were told by the head of the Drug Enforcement Agency that someone at the National Security Counsel leaked information on a DEA drug sting operation against the Sandinistas in order to influence a congressional vote on Contra aid, causing the operation to abort.

After the Gary Webb report in the Mercury News, the CIA Inspector General Frederick Hitz was assigned to investigate these allegations in 1996. Although the investigators promised to release their report in three months, it was only pressure by both the Washington Post and New York Times, that news stated that Hitz had found no “direct of indirect” connection between the CIA and cocaine traffickers.

When the report was finally the release, much of the controversy had dissolved. The implications of the report were virtually ignored by the media. According to the book, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press , by authors Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, the Hitz report described a cable from the CIA's Directorate of Operations dated October 22, 1982, describing a prospective meeting between Contra leaders in Costa Rica for "an exchange in [the United States] of narcotics for arms, which then are shipped to Nicaragua." The two main Contra groups, US arms dealers, and a lieutenant of a drug ring which imported drugs from Latin America to the US west coast were set to attend the Costa Rica meeting. The lieutenant trafficker was also a Contra, and the CIA knew that there was an arms-for-drugs shuttle and did nothing to stop it.

The United States was not the only nation investigating North's involvement with shady organizations. For example, in the second report by the Costa Rican Assembly's Commission on Narcotics Trafficking , an examination of the explosion of cocaine and drug trafficking in during the 1980s, the commission recommended that that former ambassador Lewis Tambs , CIA station chief Joseph F. Fernandez , and Lt. Col. Oliver North be forever denied entry in Costa Rica, a recommendation adopted by Costa Rican President Oscar Arias.

Easy Hero

North ran unsuccessfully as a Republican Senate candidate in Virginia. On the eve of the election, former first lady Nancy Reagan told a reporter that North had lied to her husband when discussing Iran-Contra with the former president, effectively stopping his campaign.

In this current Wonderland of Republican politics, who knows whether Palin might not choose him as her running mate? Given the respective characters at play, there is a kind of warped logic about it.

North has penned several books, fiction and non-fiction (though many reviewers wouldn't care to distinguish one from the other). It has been a gradual but steady rehabilitation of his image with the kind assistance of his Fox Friends.

In past years, with his pal Sean Hannity, he has helped organize and is the honorary chairman for the Freedom Alliance , whose mission, according to its website, "is to advance the American heritage of freedom by honoring and encouraging military service, defending the sovereignty of the United States and promoting a strong national defense."

Freedom Alliance , a 501(c)3 educational and charitable foundation, was founded in 1990 by Lt.Col Oliver L. North, who now serves as the organization's honorary chairman. We will work to "keep America strong, keep America prosperous, and keep America free," said North upon the founding of Freedom Alliance.

For the last several years, Sean Hannity and the Freedom Alliance “charity” have conducted “Freedom Concerts” across America. The organization is raises funds for scholarships for the children of fallen soldiers and to pay severely wounded war vets. However, ultra-conservative blogger Debbie Schlussel charged that entire arrangement was nothing more than a scam.

In fact, less than 20%–and in two recent years, less than 7% and 4%, respectively–of the money raised by Freedom Alliance went to these causes, while millions of dollars went to expenses, including consultants and apparently to ferry the Hannity posse of family and friends in high style. And, despite Hannity’s statements to the contrary on his nationally syndicated radio show, few of the children of fallen soldiers got more than $1,000-$2,000, with apparently none getting more than $6,000, while Freedom Alliance appears to have spent tens of thousands of dollars for private planes. Moreover, despite written assurances to donors that all money raised would go directly to scholarships for kids of the fallen heroes and not to expenses, has begun charging expenses of nearly $500,000 to give out just over $800,000 in scholarships.

Freedom Alliance has strongly denied such allegations , calling them "false and malicious."

His last book, American Heroes he wrote "first hand accounts of faithful American heroes in the fight against global terrorism and jihad." Interestingly, but perhaps not unexpectedly, the book shares a copyright with Fox.

He has a comfortable life, I am sure, a warm home and a large family. North has four children, eleven grandchildren, and lives with his wife in Virginia.

He has plenty of people to share his thoughts with and a warm blanket. He is able to come and go as he pleases, and he has the luxury of choosing his meals. Whenever he wishes, he can step outside and look at the sky.

Not so far away from this decorated hero's Virginia home, however, in a Quantico prison, there is another soldier who is considered a hero by many. And, not unlike Oliver North, many consider him a traitor who betrayed his country. Without standing trial or without being convicted, Bradley Manning has already served more time in prison than Oliver North. Many patriotic Americans have condemned Manning. It is, for them, a clear case Manning swore an oath and he broke that oath, a crime that Oliver North shares with Manning.

North, at the commencement of his testimony before the Congressional hearings back in 1986, boldly stated something Bradley Manning might well have said, "I am here to accept responsibility for that which I did. I will not accept responsibility for that which I did not do. I came here to tell you the truth, the good, the bad and the ugly. I never considered myself a fall guy. I know what I did. I know why I did it. I'm not ashamed of it."

However, the obvious difference between Manning and North is that North made this noble declaration, not facing life in prison or a firing squad and not in solitary confinement, but under a grant of immunity. Given Lt. Col. North's Fifth amendment objections when subpoenaed, the only way to obtain his testimony was to compel it through a grant of use immunity. Despite the fact that North was the target of an a criminal investigation, It was felt that without his testimony the record would have been incomplete. Nothing he told Congress would, or could, be used against him in a criminal proceeding. Being honest, therefore, would cost him nothing.

Under those circumstances,. it's fairly easy to be a hero.

Drawing Comparisons

This week, the military brought 22 new charges - including one that carries the death penalty - against Pfc. Bradley E. Manning. That capital offense, according to the statement that outlined the 22 charges, was aiding and abetting the enemy- although it was not clear who the proposed enemy was. Presumably, the rest of the world.

While military prosecutors have recommended life in prison instead, "the presiding military judge would have the authority to dismiss the prosecution's recommendation and impose the death penalty," according to NBC .

Manning stated in his private chats to an informer, “God knows what happens now.. hopefully worldwide discussion, debates, and reforms. If not… than we’re doomed.. as a species. I will officially give up on the society we have if nothing happens. I want people to see the truth… regardless of who they are… because without information, you cannot make informed decisions as a public.”

On the other hand, perhaps the same defense could be used in Manning's case as well, Here is a statement made by Obama in a town hall meeting for the future leaders of China:


Oliver North - History

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Oliver North

The scandal grew worse for the Reagan administration after it became clear that National Security Council member Oliver North had ordered the destruction and concealment of documents related to the Iran and Contra arms sale. In July 1987, North testified before a televised hearing of a special joint congressional committee created to investigate the Iran-Contra scandal. North admitted that he had lied when describing the deal to Congress in 1985, stating that he had viewed the Nicaraguan Contras as “freedom fighters” engaged in a war against the Communist Sandinista government. Based on his testimony, North was indicted on a series of federal felony charges and ordered to stand trial.

During the 1989 trial, North’s secretary Fawn Hall testified that she had helped her boss shred, alter, and remove official United States National Security Council documents from his White House office. North testified that he had ordered the shredding of “some” documents in order to protect the lives of certain individuals involved in the arms deal.

On May 4, 1989, North was convicted of bribery and obstruction of justice and was sentenced to a three-year suspended prison term, two years on probation, $150,000 in fines, and 1,200 hours of community service. However, on July 20, 1990, his conviction was vacated when a federal court of appeals ruled that North’s televised 1987 testimony to Congress may have improperly influenced the testimony of some witnesses at his trial. After taking office in 1989, President George H.W. Bush issued presidential pardons to six other individuals who had been convicted for their involvement in the scandal.


Oliver North Worked With Cocaine Traffickers to Arm Terrorists. Now He’ll Be President of the NRA.

The National Rifle Association has always been clear about drugs: They’re terrifying.

Last year, NRA CEO Wayne LaPierre darkly warned that members of drug gangs “are infiltrating law enforcement and even the military.” In 2013, LaPierre proclaimed that “Latin American drug gangs have invaded every city of significant size in the United States” and are a key part of the “hellish world” that awaits us in the future. When Charlton Heston was president of the NRA in the 1990s, he declared that regular Americans would soon be besieged by 10,000 drug dealers freed from prison by the Clinton administration.

It seems odd, then, that the next president of the NRA will soon be Oliver North, who spent years in the 1980s working together with large-scale cocaine traffickers and protecting a notorious narco-terrorist from the rest of the U.S. government.

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This reality about North has been largely covered up, first by North himself and then by Fox News and the passage of time. Thirty years later, it’s been almost totally forgotten. But the facts remain genuinely appalling.

North was an active-duty Marine when he joined the Reagan administration’s National Security Council in 1981. One of Reagan’s top priorities was organizing and funding the Contras, a guerrilla military force, to overthrow the revolutionary socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. But the Contras engaged in extensive, gruesome terrorism against Nicaraguan civilians. Congress gradually reduced and then eliminated appropriations supporting them, leading the Reagan administration to secretly search for money elsewhere.

According to the report from a later congressional investigation, North was put in charge of this operation, which participants dubbed “The Enterprise.”

"Report of the congressional committees investigating the Iran-Contra Affair,” U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran U.S. Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition, 1987

North enthusiastically looked for cash wherever he could find it and led many of the clandestine schemes that later became known as the Iran-Contra scandal. The Sultan of Brunei donated $10 million (which North’s secretary Fawn Hall accidentally wired to the wrong Swiss bank account), and Saudi Arabia ponied up as well. North also pushed what he called “a neat idea”: selling U.S. military equipment to Iran, with the proceeds passed along to the Contras.

Meanwhile, the Contras had a neat idea of their own: facilitating cocaine trafficking through Central America into the U.S., with a cut going toward supporting their war against the Sandinistas. Some Contras were themselves cocaine traffickers, and others were simply happy to make alliances of convenience with drug cartels.

There’s no evidence that North actively мехост cocaine to be smuggled into the U.S. It was simply that he had other priorities. But was he aware of the Contras’ drug trafficking? Бале. Did he try to shield one of “his” cocaine traffickers from consequences from the other branches of the U.S. government? Бале. Did he work together with a known drug lord? Бале.

All in all, North’s connections to drug trafficking were so egregious that in 1989 he was banned from entering Nicaragua’s neighbor Costa Rica by Óscar Arias, the country’s president and 1987 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

This may seem shocking to the easily shocked. But it’s all been documented in various government investigations. All you need in order to learn about it is curiosity and an internet connection. For instance, here’s a screenshot from the CIA’s website about the Nicaraguan Revolutionary Democratic Alliance, or ADREN by its Spanish acronym, which was later folded into the Contras:

"Allegations of Connections Between CIA and The Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States,” CIA, 1998

The full extent of North’s complicity in cocaine trafficking will never be known. When the Iran-Contra scandal story broke in November 1986, he ordered Hall to destroy so many documents that the shredder malfunctioned, and she had to ask White House maintenance to come and fix it. Moreover, when North was removed from his National Security Council job, he took with him 2,848 pages of daily notes — which legally belonged to the federal government. By the time a congressional investigation was finally able to examine the notes, North and his lawyers had redacted huge amounts of information. Nonetheless, 543 of the pages mentioned drugs or drug trafficking, with the probe finding that “in many of these cases, material in the Notebooks adjacent to the narcotics references has been deleted.”

"Drugs, Law Enforcement And Foreign Policy,” U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1989

But despite North’s cover-up, what we do know for sure is incredibly damning.

Perhaps most significantly, according to North’s own notes he met with Panama’s then-dictator Manuel Noriega in London in September 1986 to collaborate on a plan for Noriega to support the Contras in return for American money and arms. They discussed sabotaging a Nicaraguan airport and oil refinery, as well as creating a program to train Contra and Afghan mujahedeen commandos in Panama with Israeli help. (It’s not completely clear, but North appears to have written that “Rabin” – i.e., Yitzhak Rabin, who was then Israel’s minister of defense – “approves.”)

North was clearly enthusiastic about the potential partnership with Noriega. In an earlier email selling the proposal to one of his superiors, he wrote that “we might have available a very effective, very secure means of doing some of the things which must be done if the Nicaragua project is going to succeed. … I believe we could make the appropriate arrangements w/ reasonable OPSEC and deniability.”

Email, Oliver North to John Poindexter, May 8, 1986

But of course, Noriega was himself a powerful drug trafficker. Knowing this didn’t require a top-secret clearance: It was published on the front page of the New York Times three months before North met with him. According to the Times article, “A White House official said the most significant drug-running in Panama was being directed by General Noriega.”

The North-Noriega operation ultimately didn’t come to fruition the Iran-Contra affair was exposed just two months after they met. But the planning that did occur is conclusive evidence that North eagerly worked with drug dealers operating on the largest scale imaginable.

“Panama Strongman Said to Trade In Drugs, Arms and Illicit Money,” New York Times, June 11, 1986

North also went to great lengths to protect an ally who was a key participant in what the Justice Department called “the most significant case of narco-terrorism yet discovered.”

In 1984, José Bueso Rosa, a Honduran general, plotted with several others to assassinate the president of Honduras. They planned to fund the hit with the proceeds from selling 760 pounds of cocaine in the U.S. The FBI, however, had the participants under surveillance, intercepted the shipment when it arrived at a small airfield in Florida, and arrested everyone involved.

But Bueso had played a key role in Honduran support for the Contras. So North went to work to get him off as lightly as possible. (Bueso had not himself been charged with drug trafficking, but wiretaps made it obvious he participated in that part of the project.)

In email, North explained his plans to “cabal quietly” with other Reagan administration officials “to look at options: pardon, clemency, deportation, reduced sentence.” Eventually, North planned to have the case’s judge informed “in camera” — that is, secretly — about “our equities in this matter,” in order to push for leniency. Then, North wrote, it would be necessary to quietly brief Bueso, so that he wouldn’t “start singing songs nobody wants to hear.”

North didn’t get everything he wanted, but did succeed in having Bueso transferred to a “Club Fed” minimum security prison. Bueso was released on parole after 40 months.

Ҳамчунин ҳастанд numerous documented examples of North being informed that members of the Contras were involved in drug trafficking, with no signs that North took any action.

For instance, after meeting with a key assistant, North wrote in his notebooks about a plane being used by the brother of a top Contra leader to ferry supplies from the U.S. to Central America. “Honduran DC-6 which is being used for runs out of New Orleans,” North jotted down, “is probably being used for drug runs into U.S.”

North testified in front of Congress that he’d passed this information along to the Drug Enforcement Administration. When later questioned by the Washington Post, the DEA, the State Department, and the U.S. Customs Service all stated that there was no evidence North ever said anything about the matter to them.

Oliver North, notes, August 9, 1985

The same aide who told North about the plane also informed him about the “potential involvement with drug running” of one Contra official and that another was “now involved in drug running out of Panama.” And after a call from another subordinate, North noted that the Contras were planning to buy weapons from a Honduran warehouse — and 󈫾 M to finance came from drugs.”

North was getting similar reports from outside the government as well. Dennis Ainsworth, a Republican real estate investor who’d volunteered to help the Contra cause, informed a U.S. attorney that the top Contra commander “was involved in drug trafficking,” but that the Nicaraguan community was frightened to come forward because “they could be blown away by Colombia hit squads.” Ainsworth said he’d tried to inform the White House about this but “we were put off by Ollie North,” and “I was even physically threatened by one of Ollie North’s associates.” (The U.S. attorney later wrote a memo with Ainsworth’s statements and transmitted it to the FBI.)

“Regarding Dennis Madden Ainsworth, Information Concerning,” FBI, January 6, 1987

North and the NRA did not immediately respond to requests for comment on this history. When North ran for Senate in 1994, his campaign spokesperson said his involvement with the Bueso case was “old news and garbage and nobody cares about it.” In a 2004 appearance on Fox News, North called a congressional investigation that focused on the Contra-cocaine connection “a witch hunt” with witnesses “who clearly had a political agenda.”

But the extraordinarily sordid nature of North’s past will be clear to anyone who appraises it honestly. In announcing North’s appointment, Wayne LaPierre said there’s “no one better suited to serve as our president,” and he’s correct. Óscar Arias wrote Thursday that the NRA “finds in Oliver North a leader worthy of its mission.” Peter Kornbluh, who was co-director of the Iran-Contra documentation project at the National Security Archive, is even more straightforward: North, he says, is “the perfect pick to further the NRA’s reputation for favoring bloodshed and criminality over responsible gun control and ownership.”


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